# Are you risk loving or risk adverse?

To you, what value of $X will make these 2 payoffs equivalent: Payoff 1 - Getting$100 for certain.

Payoff 2 - Getting $0 with 50% probability, and$X with 50% probability.

To you, what value of $Y will make these 2 payoffs equivalent: Payoff 3 - Getting -$100 for certain.

Payoff 4 - Getting -$0 with 50% probability, and -$Y with 50% probability.

If $X \neq Y$, is there an arbitrage opportunity?

Note by Calvin Lin
6 years, 2 months ago

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Depends on what my initial balance is.

If I begin the game with $0 in hand, I will definitely choose Payoff 1 and Payoff 4, no matter what X and Y are. (Getting guaranteed money, no matter how small, is infinitely better if you don't have any to begin with; likewise, having possibility of no need to owe anything is infinitely better even if that choice also risks the possibility of owing a massive amount, when you have nothing to begin with.) If I begin the game with a big amount ($1 million) in hand, I'm pretty sure the cutoff point (Payoff 1 if lower, Payoff 2 if higher) for X is somewhere around $200+\epsilon$, and likewise for Y around $200-\epsilon$ (Payoff 4 if lower, Payoff 3 if higher). I'm someone that believes the utility of money can be modeled logarithmically.

- 6 years, 2 months ago

So, you will choose payoff 1 even if X = 1000000?

And you will choose to lose $1000, instead of guaranteeing just a loss of$100?

Note that you can go negative into debt, which gets paid off in a subsequent time period. If Y was huge enough that you would declare bankruptcy with no adverse effect, then yes sometimes Payoff 4 could be better.

Staff - 6 years, 2 months ago

I said it depends (heavily) on my initial balance. If I have $0 to begin with, yes, I will choose Payoff 1 even if X =$1000000; but give me about $10 to begin, and I might pick Payoff 2 instead (since I at least have backup money of$10 if I don't get the million). Likewise for the second scenario; if you have $0 to begin with, any debt at all will cause bankruptcy and thus it's better to pick Payoff 4 that has a possibility of no bankruptcy. Using (my sense of) utility of money, where the utility of $\X$ is $U(X) = A \cdot \log BX$ for some constants $A,B$: If I start with$0:

• Payoff 1 makes my money $100, so $U(\text{Payoff 1}) = U(100) = A \cdot \log 100B$, which is finite. • Payoff 2 has two possibilities. 50% of the time, my money becomes$X, so $U(X) = A \cdot \log XB$, which is finite. However, 50% of the time, my money remains $0, so $U(0) = A \cdot \log 0 = -\infty$. Thus $U(\text{Payoff 2}) = \frac{1}{2} \cdot U(X) + \frac{1}{2} \cdot U(0) = -\infty$. No finite value of X can make this not infinity, and when X goes to infinity, things get weird with $\infty - \infty$. However, give any positive amount $\\epsilon$ to start with, and now $U(\text{Payoff 2}) = U(X+\epsilon) + U(\epsilon)$ is finite, and so for some $X$ it's possible that $U(\text{Payoff 2}) > U(\text{Payoff 1})$, in which I'm taking Payoff 2 instead. - 6 years, 2 months ago Log in to reply Ah i see. I missed that your "absolute zero point" is$0,

I think that people can go into debt and so my "absolute zero point" isn't $0, but more like -$100,000 (depending on age / locality / etc)

E.g. It is arguably worthwhile for some people to take on student loan debt so that they can study in a (overseas) university.

Staff - 6 years, 2 months ago

How can you ever win anything with payoff 4? If you lose money or get nothing :s

- 6 years, 2 months ago

That's the point: If you must choose between payoff 3 or payoff 4, which would you choose (to cut your losses)? Payoff 3 guarantees that you lose $100 while payoff 4 results in only a probability of 50% to lose$200.

- 6 years, 2 months ago

I'd take on Payoff 2 if X>200 (preferably X>>>200). And I'd take on payoff 4 if Y$\leq$100 ( preferably Y<<<0) ;-)

I guess it shows that I don't like to owe anybody. Lannisters always repay their debts. So do I.

- 6 years, 2 months ago

Never seen a lannister except for the Imp to pay his debts and you're not a lannister either are you? xD

- 6 years, 2 months ago

That's why I added the "So do I" part.

- 6 years, 2 months ago