This has been bugging me for days and I really need to move on:
Why do electrons stop flowing when the potential difference between the plates of a capacitor equals the battery's terminal potential?
Explanations like THIS ring many bells, but not the ones I'm looking for:
Also, what does it mean for there to be a potential AT a certain object? Like, potential AT THE PLATE and AT THE BATTERY TERMINAL. This makes absolutely no sense to me since voltage is relative. Is it bad wording, and it's implying the potential difference BETWEEN the plate and the terminal? In this case, does it simply mean there's no electric field between the plate and the terminal, and thus no voltage? Still doesn't answer the above question though.
I've tried this animation, but nay.
This, from another book, also won't ring bells:
Why do the charges on the plates have to be exactly equal in magnitude?
I've found this electric potential diagram to be somewhat useful, maybe you can refer to this in your answer:
And, lastly, does the battery supply the electrons to the negative plate or does it simply transfer the electron received from the positive plate to the negative plate? If it's the latter, it explains my previous question.
I really appreciate any help. Thank you!