Subatomic Particle Charge
Proton +1 Electron -1 Neutron 0
Basic Atomic Structure ~The number of protons in an atom or ion determines what element it is.
For example, if a particle has 6 protons in it, it must be carbon. (relative molar mass of carbon is 12 , so 12 - 6 neutrons= 6 protons)
The atomic number of an atom or an ion is equal to its number of protons.
Atomic Number = Number of Protons
Example: potassium (K) in the periodic table, it has an atomic number of 19, meaning that all potassium atoms and all potassium ions contain 19 protons.
Atomic Mass Number = (number of Protons) + (number of Neutrons)
Example: A particle with 6 protons and an atomic mass number of 14 has 8 neutrons.
Ions = Charged Particles
~ Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons. ~Positive ions (cations) are formed when a neutral atom loses electrons. ~Negative ions (anions) are formed when a neutral atom gains electrons. ～Metallic atoms tend to lose electrons to form positive ions (also known as cations). ～Nonmetallic atoms tend to gain electrons to form negative ions (a.k.a. anions).
Charge = (number of Protons) - (number of Electrons)
Example: A particle with 34 protons and 36 electrons has a charge of -2.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons. Therefore, isotopes have the following characteristics:
Isotopes have the same atomic number (same number of protons), but a different atomic mass number (a different number of neutrons). Isotopes behave the same chemically, because they are the same element. The only difference is that one is heavier than the other, because of the additional neutrons.
For example, carbon-12 and carbon-14 are both isotopes of carbon. Carbon-12 has 6 neutrons; carbon-14 has 8 neutrons.