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Chemistry - Solution, Solute and Solvent

Problem Set

Hi everyone! There were many discussion/notes that wanted Brilliant.org to include Chemistry but it failed as it is a very difficult task. However, now we can share notes and problems freely that may make chemistry problems come true. So I hope Brilliant users that are advanced in Chemistry will share some notes and the related problems and I believe someday, Chemistry will also be a major topic!

I will start from a topic of chemistry which is much related to mathematics application.

Solute - The substance that dissolves to form a solution

Solvent - The substance in which a solute dissolves

Solution - A mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent

**Solutions are homogenous systems, which means the solute is evenly spread out and mixed together in the solvent.

Solubility

Definition: At a fixed temperature, the maximum mass of a solute that can dissolve in the fixed mass of solvent(usually 100g).

If at \(50^\circ C\), \(60g\) is the maximum mass of \(NH_{4}Cl\) can dissolve in \(100g\) of water, the solubility is:

\(60g/100g\) water.

Some other notes:

  1. The solubility of a solute varies in different temperature.

  2. At a fixed pressure, the solubility of a liquid or solid solute increase as the temperature increase but the solubility of a gas solute decrease instead.

  3. At a fixed temperature, the solubility of gas solute increase as the pressure increase.

  4. Solubility of a liquid or solid solute is not much affected by the pressure.

Now there is an example:

Let a \(50g\), \(20^\circ C\) \(KNO_3\) saturated solution evaporate and we can get \(12g\) crystallized \(KNO_3\). Calculate the solubility of \(KNO_3\) when it is at \(20^\circ C\).

Solution:

Mass of solute(\(KNO_3\)) \(=12g\)

Mass of solvent(water) \(=50g-12g=38g\)

At \(20^\circ C\),

\(38g\) water dissolves \(12g KNO_3\) (Note that this means the solvent dissolves the maximum mass of solute already as it is a saturated solution. If now we add 2g of the solute, it will not dissolve into the solvent.)

Then,

\(100g\) water dissolves \(x g KNO_3\)

So, \(x=31.6g/100g\) water.

I only summarise the idea of this topic and the example is very easy. I apologize if I cannot make a clear explanation for you. However, follow me as I will share more tougher chemistry problems for you!

Note by Christopher Boo
3 years, 2 months ago

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Christopher -

This is a nice post! I'm looking forward to more Chemistry from you, and the rest of the community. Chemistry was actually my worst science subject when I was in school, and I never really "got it." I'd be very happy to pick a few things up and maybe have a clue what makes it so interesting to so many people. :) Daniel Hirschberg · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Daniel Hirschberg Same here, Chemistry has been my worst too.I will try to solve most of chemistry problems.

Actually, I feel myself comfortable with mathematical(physical) chemistry, but not with organic, or inorganic.Brilliant should introduce ways to draw structures of various compounds,because most of organic or inorganic chemistry problems are related to structures, or use structures somewhere. Jatin Yadav · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Jatin Yadav Hi Jatin -

Right now, Brilliant makes it easy to attach a picture from your computer or phone to any problem. Our hope is that that utility helps people with their need for drawn figures. Daniel Hirschberg · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Daniel Hirschberg Same as Jatin, I enjoy physical chemistry but not organic and inorganic. I have no idea why others like organic chemistry too because for me, I study those by memorizing. So I think it is quite boring. However, I hope other people who are interested in organic and inorganic chemistry can share their thoughts with me! Christopher Boo · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Hey Everybody!

Christopher also wrote us nice problems to accompany his post:

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 1

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 2 Peter Taylor Staff · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Peter Taylor I have added more problems!

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 3

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 4

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 5

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 6

Solution, Solute and Solvent Problem 7

Among the problems, Problem 6 and Problem 7 are harder. I know I did not use cool names but as this is only some warm up problems, I think it's ok? Christopher Boo · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Christopher Boo Excellent! I have edited your note, so that people in the future can efficiently access your problems, and the concepts that apply to them from the top of this note. Peter Taylor Staff · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Peter Taylor Thank you very much! Christopher Boo · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Nice introductory post! Keep it up! Mursalin Habib · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Nice post! Soham Dibyachintan · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Electrochemistry Post 1 - Electrochemistry

Follow me for further posts on this topic. Anish Puthuraya · 3 years, 1 month ago

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create a #Chemistry tag Daniel Lim · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Thank you all of you who appreciate my notes! I am currently working on the Partition Law which I think is very interesting, hope you guys will love it. Christopher Boo · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Awesome post! I'm really looking forward to see a Chemistry section in Brilliant! I also posted a Chemistry problem a couple of weeks ago on the common-ion effect and solubility product, feel free to check it out:

So many solutions! Vitor Terra · 3 years, 2 months ago

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IT IS REALLY QUITE HELPFUL.NICE POST! Ojas Jain · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Hi Christoper - this is very good, and will also give good practice for participants of the IChOO! Ahaan Rungta · 3 years, 2 months ago

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Great idea! I'm willing to help/support this topic. Vishnuram Leonardodavinci · 3 years, 2 months ago

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is there a more easier way to calculate the solubility of a substance? Brylle Viernes · 2 years, 11 months ago

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nice share dude Bonaventura Radityo Sanjoyo · 2 years, 11 months ago

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Can you post a few more problems about this topic so I can be sure that I really understand it?

Or give me some links to websites that provides questions of this topic? Daniel Lim · 3 years, 1 month ago

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@Daniel Lim I can't find any good website provide chemistry questions. However, I will try to include more problems. I see you solved problem 7 which I think is the hardest. So I guess you want harder problems? Christopher Boo · 3 years, 1 month ago

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Great job, now I can learn chemistry easily Daniel Lim · 3 years, 1 month ago

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SO there coming is THE CHEMICAL SAGA............. Hope its chemically wonderful... Arya Samanta · 3 years, 2 months ago

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hi guys!!!i'm a newbie in this website but i believe that this site will help me to become better!!!!!!!i hope that you will help me to about solving and analyzing data/problem?????????????but now i want to thank you!!hahah@@awkward Algen Alesna · 3 years, 2 months ago

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@Algen Alesna Me to yr but i feel difficult to solve numerical problem Naveen Kumar · 2 years, 10 months ago

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