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Ideal solution ~ Raoult's Law

Definition of Ideal solution : In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases

Definition : Raoult's law states that the vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the same temperature scaled by the mole fraction of the solvent present.

Introduction : In the 1880s, French chemist François-Marie Raoult discovered that when a substance is dissolved in a solution, the vapor pressure of the solution will generally decrease. This observation depends on two variables:

(1) the mole fraction of the amount of dissolved solute present

(2)* the original vapor pressure*

\(P_{solution}\)= \(X_{solvent}\) x \(P_{solvent}^0\)

At any given temperature for a particular solid or liquid, there is a pressure at which the vapor formed above the substance is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid or solid form. This is the vapor pressure of the substance at that temperature. At equilibrium, the rate at which the solid or liquid evaporates is equal to the rate that the gas is condensing back to its original form. All solids and liquids have vapor pressure, and this pressure is constant regardless of how much of the substance is present.

Ideal vs. Nonideal Solutions

Raoult's Law only works for ideal solutions. An ideal solution is defined as one which obeys Raoult's Law. "An ideal solution shows thermodynamic mixing characteristics identical to those of ideal gas mixtures [except] ideal solutions have intermolecular interactions equal to those of the pure components."

Like many other concepts explored in Chemistry, Raoult's Law only applies under ideal conditions in an ideal solution. However, it still works fairly well for the solvent in dilute solutions. In reality though, the decrease in vapor pressure will be greater than that calculated by Raoult's Law for extremely dilute solutions.

Note by Nicole Ling
3 years, 11 months ago

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