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The Heart

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\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{THE HEART}}\)

\(\bullet\) The heart has a triangular shape

\(\bullet\) Its pointed end is called the apex, located on the inferior margin.

\(\bullet\) In most people, the heart is about the same size as the clenched fist, ~14 cm long and 9 cm wide.


\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{COVERINGS OF THE HEART}}\)

\(\bullet\) The heart and the major blood vessels that attach to it are enclosed within a double-layered serous membrane called the pericardium.

\(\bullet\) The outer sac is called the parietal pericardium or pericardial sac.

\(\bullet\)The inner layer is called the visceral pericardium, or epicardium.Between the epicardium and the parietal pericardium is a potential space called the pericardial cavity. It contains a small amount of fluid that is secreted by serous cells of the pericardium. The fluid acts as a lubricant that reduces friction between the membranes as they glide against each other during heart activity.

\(\bullet\) If the pericardium becomes swollen, such as in the disease pericarditis, fluid production is inhibited. This decline in lubrication causes the membranes to stick together, thereby leading to severe chest pain and possibly impeding heart activity.


\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{HEART WALL}}\)

\(\bullet\) The wall of the heart is composed of three layers: the outermost epicardium, the middle myocardium, and the inner endocardium.

\(\bullet\) The epicardium serves as a thin protective barrier for the heart. It is a serous membrane that is firmly attached to the heart. It contains fat deposits.

\(\bullet\) The myocardium makes up the bulk of the It is composed of cardiac muscle tissue and is the layer that actually contracts to provide the propulsion of blood.

\(\bullet\) The endocardium is a smooth, white membrane forming the inner layer of the heart wall.It lines the internal spaces of the heart (the heart chambers) and covers the heart valves.

This inner heart membrane, which is also found lining the inner walls of the blood vessels, is generally known as endothelium.


\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{HEART CHAMBERS}}\)

\(\bullet\) The heart has four internal spaces, called chambers.

\(\bullet\)The two superior chambers are the atria (right and left), and the two inferior chambers are the ventricles (right and left ).

ATRIA :-

\(\bullet\) The right and left atria (singular form is atrium) function as receiving chambers for blood entering the heart.

\(\bullet\)They simply push blood “next door” into the ventricles.

\(\bullet\)Their walls, are quite thin and have little myocardium.

\(\bullet\)Attached to the atria are small, ear like hollow appendages, known as auricles.

\(\bullet\)The endocardium lining the atrial walls is smooth in texture, except for ridges formed by parallel bundles of underlying muscle.

\(\bullet\)The ridges are called pectinate muscles, after their similarity in appearance to the teeth of a comb.

\(\bullet\)The right and left atria are internally separated by a partition, called the interatrial septum. This partition is complete in healthy hearts.

\(\bullet\) On the posterior wall of the septum of the right atrium is an oval depression, the fossa ovalis. This is what remains of an opening that was once present in the fetal heart, in which blood was shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium in order to bypass the lungs.

In the fetus this opening is called the foramen ovale.

\(\bullet\) The right atrium collects incoming blood from the superior vena cava, which drains blood from the regions above the heart from the inferior vena cava, which drains blood from regions below the heart and from the coronary sinus, which comes from the heart wall.The left atrium collects blood from the four pulmonary veins, which drain blood from the lungs.


VENTRICLES - The right and left ventricles provide the force necessary to push blood out of the heart and into the body’s circulatory network.

\(\bullet\) Of the two ventricles, the left contains the thickest wall.

\(\bullet\)The right ventricle pushes blood to the lungs.The right and left ventricles are internally separated by a thick muscular partition called the interventricular septum.

\(\bullet\)Its position can be determined externally, for it parallels a groove in the outer surface of the heart known as the interventricular sulcus.The right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk, which carries it to the lungs.

\(\bullet\)The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, whose branches deliver blood to all remaining areas of the body.


\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{HEART VALVES}}\) The valves of the heart permit blood to flow in one direction only. two types of valves in the heart: atrioventricular and semilunar.

\(\bullet\) The atrioventricular (AV) valves are located between the atria and the ventricles. The AV valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called the tricuspid valve.The AV valve

\(\bullet\) Between the left atrium and left ventricle is called the bicuspid valve.

The bicuspid valve is also called the mitral valve.

Their pointed ends are attached to thin strands of connective tissue, called chordae tendineae.They permit the one-way movement of blood from the atria to the ventricles.

\(\bullet\) The two semilunar valves are located between the ventricles and the two major vessels carrying blood away from the heart--the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

\(\bullet\) The SL valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is called the pulmonary valve.and the one located between the left ventricle and the aorta is called the aortic valve. The function of the SL valves is to direct one-way flow of blood from the ventricles to the pulmonary trunk and aorta.


\(\color{Blue}{\textbf{SUPPLY OF BLOOD TO THE HEART}}\)

\(\bullet\) The wall of the heart has its own supply of blood vessels to meet its vital needs. The flow of blood through these vessels is called the coronary circulation.

Note by Sumita Cardio
2 years, 8 months ago

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Since you have directly copied it from a Powerpoint Presentation, you must credit the source too. @sumita cardio Krishna Ar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Krishna Ar yes yes ofcourse but no one ever shared any bio note on Brilliant so overall credit goes to me... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio @Krishna A R has made a right point.


Brilliant has contents about Math, Physics, Computer Science and related concepts.

When I joined this website, I wanted to post bio notes and questions, but discarded the idea due to the aforementioned reason. Similarly, there might have been many other users.

I hope you got the point Ritu Roy · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Ritu Roy Got your point but clearly what do u conquered finally? Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Hi Sumita

I didn't want to conquer anything/anyone- if you've got it in the way i meant it to be.

Regards Ritu Ritu Roy · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Ritu Roy okay no problem i understand what you really means with respect @Ritu Roy Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 6 months ago

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What would happen if the heart shifts toward right of its original position? U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Hey my friend let me tell you that the situation which you are imagining is a real situation known as dextrocardia. It is a congenital defect in which apex of heart shifts to right side. This defect is further divided.Dextrocardia is believed to occur in approximately 1 in 12,000 people. Rishabh Kumar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Rishabh Kumar Can u explain in simple words....what is congenital defect? Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Actually this term means a defect which is from birth or time of birth or even before birth and generally related to structural deformity which has defects in foetus as well and may be there due to the gene abnormality. Rishabh Kumar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z remind u @megh choksi that i m not a cardiologist...but on the way to become....so according to my knowledge i think the connection of arteries and veins in our cardiovascular system meets at this position due to which the supplies of Co2 out and O2 in is possible...gud to see ur curiosity.. Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat hmm interesting ! , O.k. An Non Biologist and Stupid guy Like me Says , If this happened then only thing that differs is that We have our Pocket's in RHS (Right hand side) of our Shirt's (at least in school shirts) !\(\ddot\smile\) Lol ! megh choksi Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat LoL , I saw it in a movie the actor did'nt died by the villian as he was having his heart on RHS U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z R u Talking about The bollywood movie " Luck " :) Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Yes exactly U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z :)do you like that film ? I like that movie only because of my favourite actress "Shruti hassan" :) :P Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat I just saw the last part , you are going to rock this time on 23rd May U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Sorry but what did you mean by 23rd may ? Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Your exam JEE - Advanced U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z oh ! I'am Trying My Best , But still Chemistry is big-big hurdle for me . But I think That You will definetly Rock on 23rd may . Am I right ? Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Nooo sir , you and deepanshu gupta are definitely going to rock this time . My inorganic and physics - not good U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Bro , . Please Please don't call me sir , You and deepanshu are genius , I'am not an foot in front of you ! And bro But How did you know that this is my 2nd chance in jee ? Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat So both of you are also appearing in JEE? Btw thats 24th May! Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain yes i will and pranjal boss are u in 12th ? Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Yup! This will be my first and most probably last attempt to JEE Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain In that case Best of Luck ! Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain All the best genius , are you going to be an engineer? U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Obvio! Wanna be a penetration tester or web developer @ Google Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain Nice job!Awesome!You fit that job well :) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Frankie Fook @Anton Kriksunov knows me better! =P (I really don't mean :p) Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain hehe :) It's good to mix up with these communities :) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Please don't say like this , there are many things I have learned from you , If you remember you posted a note about - should I continue to use brilliant.org or not? U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Ohh Yess Yess I forgrt that! and seriously from me ? Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat Yes , many things about physics U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z feeling glad ! Hey It is not good to ask But still if u don't mind Then can I ask you That " what approximate % or marks you are getting in your coaching Recently ? Please don't mind it,I'am just curious to know Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Karan Shekhawat I don't go to coaching classes U Z · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z That's great ! So You are preparing for JEE at home Since 11th ! Karan Shekhawat · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@U Z Can you share it to me,since I'm interested to learn physics even thought I'm only 14 but yeah,physics is one of my favorites :) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Frankie Fook Search for Wikis on topics you want to learn and read them. Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain oh thanks!I will search it through wikis then :) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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I am not interested in biology, but I think this is a nice note, I now understand how my heart works. A K · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@A K thnxx @abdulrahman khaled .....but so sad to hear that u r not interested in biology....but now i m on brilliant so..with some of my notes i will try to increase ur intrest.... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@sumita cardio Wow! This is the first time I am seeing information on heart on Brilliant. Btw, I think you like Biology. Am I correct? Anuj Shikarkhane · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Anuj Shikarkhane Yeah, that is really great, I also saw this first time on Brilliant, this MUST be appreciated, paid attention and that was also the reason why i spent 15 minutes working on the same note... Aditya Raut · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Aditya Raut yah yah....thnx for ur attention on this note....hope this is enjoyed by all bio lovers.... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Anuj Shikarkhane yes this is because i love bio....and now i m on brilliant i will improve some bio factors on this site....u can follow me to gain more knowledge........choice is urs Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio This is great! I'm excited to see more of the stuff that you share :) Calvin Lin Staff · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Calvin Lin sure sir....ofcource i wil......!!! Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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Did you know that you can plot a heart on graph paper using the equation \((x^2+y^2-1)^3-(x^2y^3) \) Vinamra Bathwal · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Vinamra Bathwal Edited LaTeX. Please check for accuracy. Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Vinamra Bathwal Check this out! Priyatam Roy · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Priyatam Roy woow its really amazing...thnx for some new informations..good day Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Vinamra Bathwal woowww really....!!!if so then, can u please send me any pic of that u have made.Infact,u have to share it as a note. Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio I got a picture of it I will try to post a note of it as soon as possible Vinamra Bathwal · 2 years, 8 months ago

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I hope there will be biology question in brilliant Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang @Sem David Sitanggang There are biology questions on Brilliant. Anuj Shikarkhane · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Anuj Shikarkhane Really ? Cause I have never seen one Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang However, the bio questions are very less as most people are interested in posting Mathematical problems(including me). @Sem David Sitanggang Anuj Shikarkhane · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Anuj Shikarkhane I see, indeed most people think math is more challenging than biology Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang So what is your opinion? Anuj Shikarkhane · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Anuj Shikarkhane I think both math and biology are challenging cause both are science and science is always challenging, the more you know science the more you don't know science Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang My real age is only 14 and about to turn into 15 but yeah,Science(which included physics,chemistry and biology) and math(add-math) are my favorites but I admire English most.Guys,my head has been puzzling with a question which involves natural phenomenon,do you guys ever wondered why the book that falls into the ground will emit sounds? Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Frankie Fook I think you should post a note for this rather than commenting. This is not a right place for asking such questions. Anyways, think about Energy Conservation. Pranjal Jain · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Pranjal Jain I will post a note about science but yeah,I am unable to make the right hypothesis yet since I don't know what makes the book emits sounds when it reaches the ground. :) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Frankie Fook ofcorce!this is due to gravitationl force and the kinetic energy of the object changes into light and sound energy when it faals down. Write a comment or ask a question... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Does it have any relationship with the vibration of the molecules inside the object?Thanks for clarifying or explaining my question:) Frankie Fook · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Frankie Fook yes the vibration of the molecules took place only when the object posses energy,and,in this case it posses when it falls. So,it shows the relationship @Frankie Fook Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 6 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang but my thinking is different...i think both are challenging subjects in itself and what we have to do is that, we have to understand the concepts by visualising and by doing practicles...@Sem David Sitanggang ...... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Yeah I agree Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang See, first go to community at the side of the home then,click on problems and at last at the side there's a option and u have to select biology as your topic........and enjoy solving at brilliant.. Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Yeah I have done that recently and I have been solving it since few days ago thanks for your information Sem David Sitanggang · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang wells....and enjoy solving Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sem David Sitanggang yes @Sem David Sitanggang your hope will be possible soon... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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Great!! Rohit Krishna · 2 years, 7 months ago

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I found something interesting about heart so posting it

The heart is the body's engine room, responsible for pumping life-sustaining blood via a 60,000-mile-long (97,000-kilometer-long) network of vessels. The organ works ceaselessly, beating 100,000 times a day, 40 million times a year—in total clocking up three billion heartbeats over an average lifetime. It keeps the body freshly supplied with oxygen and nutrients, while clearing away harmful waste matter.

The fetal heart evolves through several different stages inside the womb, first resembling a fish's heart, then a frog's, which has two chambers, then a snake's, with three, before finally adopting the four-chambered structure of the human heart.

About the size of its owner's clenched fist, the organ sits in the middle of the chest, behind the breastbone and between the lungs, in a moistened chamber that is protected all round by the rib cage. It's made up of a special kind of muscle (cardiac muscle) that works involuntarily, so we don't have to think about it. The heart speeds up or slow downs automatically in response to nerve signals from the brain that tell it how much the body is being exerted. Normally the heart contracts and relaxes between 70 and 80 times per minute, each heartbeat filling the four chambers inside with a fresh round of blood. Naman Kapoor · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Naman Kapoor So good,and i think u have to post this as a note except as a comment.@Naman Kapoor Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio I can surely do that @sumita cardio Naman Kapoor · 2 years, 7 months ago

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@Naman Kapoor 100% sure mr.@Naman Kapoor Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 7 months ago

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eswarharikumar@gmail.com Eswar Kumar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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its really interesting @sumita cardio .....u will be shock to hear that i hate biology......but after reading to your note i think that bio is such a puzzle subject in itself...but need some co-operation as u have done through this note....!!! Lynwll Zuong · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Lynwll Zuong if so...then thax a lot Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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woowwwwww...!!!! @sumita cardio this is really so nice note..i guess u like biology sooooo much and your ambition is to achieve a surgeon of cardiology in future...m i right..??? Rishabh Agarwal · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Rishabh Agarwal i think too..this is so gud..and this helps me in understanding some functions of our cardiac system. Lynwll Zuong · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Rishabh Agarwal absolutely right @rishabh agarwal........ Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Krishna Ar Maybe our biologist have something to say here?! Kartik Sharma · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Kartik Sharma What do you want me to say? Krishna Ar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Krishna Ar Some extra information! Kartik Sharma · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Kartik Sharma want more info...??? Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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If you want to add images, diagrams to your Note, you can use the process below:-

Write the following code, ! [ name of image ] ( link of image )

The link can be copied if it's a google image search result, and if it is something you have drawn, upload it to postimage.org and then get it's direct link from there... The image will appear in place of the code when you do this... Aditya Raut · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Aditya Raut okay thnx for your help........ Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio If you want something to appear on the next line, you have to press the Enter key twice.

I've added one diagram at the start for your reference, see the code and add any images if you have, which could make this even better and easy to visualize.

To make the information appear as points, you can add the bullet at start of each line by typing \ ( \bullet \ ), appearing as \(\bullet\). Aditya Raut · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Aditya Raut yeah...thnxzz again Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio @sumita cardio , done editing all the note, now see the LaTeX code for LaTeX colors and bold texts.

I'm not that good at Biology so now you please highlight the important words in the note by wrapping them like \(\text{**text **}\)

This can make the note interesting and in future try to write notes in a format that makes a user read it, avoid only information written in unsorted form. Happy Problem Solving at brilliant. Aditya Raut · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Aditya Raut soo nice of u...thnz for editing and making it soo intersting for reading..... Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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" in which blood was shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium in order to bypass the lungs." can u plz explain. Ashwin Upadhyay · 2 years, 3 months ago

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please give me your facebook id @sumita cardio Rishabh Agarwal · 2 years, 7 months ago

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You seem to be a biology lover. I'll be waiting for your note brain. That's because My brain like to study about itself. Kushal Patankar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Kushal Patankar ohh woow that;s great..!!! Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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sumita u r fb profile name plssss Eswar Kumar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Eswar Kumar give your e-mail which you have used in your fb account......i will seach u Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Ashutosh Kumar nohting is clear in the e-mail address u have given...!!!@Ashutosh Kumar Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Ashutosh Kumar okay now its ok..!!! Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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well....sumita it's simply superb!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Eswar Kumar · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Eswar Kumar thnxxx.......@Eswar Kumar Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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Why doesn't anybody posts questions about chemistry??? Naman Kapoor · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Naman Kapoor ohh...are u interested in chemistry..??? Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Sumita Cardio Yup Naman Kapoor · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Ashutosh Kumar same pro pic as here and e-mail add-sumitasingh939@yahoo.com Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Ashutosh Kumar okay...!!! Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Ashutosh Kumar and i like those people who like bio practicles........ Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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The heart wants what it wants ! Soutrik Bandyopadhyay · 2 years, 8 months ago

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@Soutrik Bandyopadhyay the heart wants some notes on this site....and now itz me to fulfil the heart's need...@Soutrik Bandyopadhyay Sumita Cardio · 2 years, 8 months ago

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