8 minutes: The Earth would have realised the Sun had disappeared. It would also travel tangent to wherever it was travelling around its orbit.
30 minutes: The light from Jupiter would have blinked out.
2 - 3 days: Most plants would have died due to no food from photosynthesis.
1 week: The average global temperature would be 0 degrees Celsius. Great trees would have died because of their water and sap would have solidified. The Earth's extra-terrestrial light would only be of a full moon.
1 year: The average global temperature would be -73 degrees Celsius. Any human who wasn't living underground or near geothermal plants would have died.
1 - 3 years: The Earth's oceans would have frozen all the way. At the bottom of the oceans, liquid water could still exist and so could extremophiles like microbes.
10 - 20 years: The air would have condensed into liquid and would rain on the Earth, and later snow.
1 billion years: The Earth would have travelled 100000 light years or have crossed the Milky Way.
Anything to add?