# X-ray Crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the high-resolution, three-dimensional crystal structures of atom and molecules and has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields. In its first decades of application, it is mainly used for determining the size of atoms, the lengths and types of chemical bonds, the atomic-scale differences among various materials, as well as the crystalline integrity, grain orientation, grain size, film thickness and interface roughness of the related materials, especially minerals and alloys. This method could also reveal the structure and function of many biological molecules like vitamins, drugs, proteins and nucleic acids. Up to date, it is still the chief method for characterizing the atomic structure of new materials and in discerning materials that appear similar by other experiments.

X-ray crystal structures can also explain the unusual electronic or elastic properties of a material, shed light on chemical interactions and processes, or function as the basis for designing pharmaceuticals against diseases. In particular, protein have been extensively put into structure determination by X-ray crystallography, which is also employed routinely in determining how a pharmaceutical drug interacts with its protein target and what changes might improve it. X-ray crystallography method has advantages of no damage to samples, free of pollution, low environmental requirements, high performance and precision over other measuring tools. These advantages make X-ray crystallography the most convenient and important manner to investigate the microstructure of materials.

More at https://www.creativebiomart.net/resource/principle-protocol-x-ray-crystallography-393.htm

Note by Caroline Green
1 year, 4 months ago

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