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Solve integer equations, determine remainders of powers, and much more with the power of Modular Arithmetic.

On the first day of class, a teacher writes his name on the board in a secret code:

NS. TNJUI

What is the actual last letter of his last name?

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Julius Caesar encodes a secret message for his troops using the \(+3\) Caesar Shift code shown above. The encoded message is the following:

DWWDFN DW GDZQ.

Which letter from the original message does the Q in the encoded message represent?

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**3** Caesar Shifts: first a \(+11\) Caesar Shift, then a \(+24\) Caesar Shift, then finally a \(+17\) Caesar Shift. How will the spy encode the letter X?

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DRKYVDRKZTJ ZJ KYV HLVVE FW KYV JTZVETVJ, REU ELDSVI KYVFIP ZJ KYV HLVVE FW DRKYVDRKZTJ.

The message above was encoded using a Caesar Shift. The letter pair "KY" appears frequently in the encoded message. Which of these common letter pairs could the encoded letter pair "KY" represent?

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Which of these Caesar Shifts encodes the letter A differently than the others?

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