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Energy cannot be created or destroyed in any transformation. This powerful accounting principle helps us analyze everything from particle collisions, to the motion of pendulums.

Lukla airport in Nepal is one of the strangest in the world. Built to support tourism to the Himalayas, the airport has a single landing runway. What is more, the runway is only 20 m wide, 450 m long, and a 2,800 m cliff at the runway's end, leaving little room for error. In fact, the airport can only be used by so-called Short Takeoff and Landing planes (STOL). Helping somewhat is a 12% incline in the runway from start to finish, so that planes rise through over the course of their deceleration.

Suppose a STOL plane's landing speed is 45 m/s (\(\approx\) 100 mph). Neglecting any other effects like wind flaps, or drag, how small will the plane's velocity (in m/s) be at the top of the runway?

**Details**

- The runway itself is 450 m long, i.e. if you walked from the bottom to the top, you'd walk 450 m along the runway.
- An \(f\)% incline means that if you walk a distance \(d\) along an incline, your rise is given by \(fd/100\).

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Climbing out of bed is sometimes hard in the morning. If you have a mass of \(60~\mbox{kg}\), what is the minimum amount of work **in joules** you have to do to get out of bed? Assume your center of mass when lying in your bed is \(0.75~\mbox{m}\) above the floor, and your center of mass when standing is \(1.25~\mbox{m}\) above the floor.

**Details and assumptions**

- The acceleration due to gravity is \(-9.8~\mbox{m/s}^2\).

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A particle is constricted to move along the positive \(x\)-axis under the influence of a potential energy:

\[U(x) = \frac{3}{x} + 7x\]

Find the point of equilibrium for the particle. (Round your answer to three decimal places.)

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