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Number Bases

How would math be different if humans only had 6 fingers and 8 toes? How does a computer do math if it has no fingers to count on?

Level 4

Let \(N\) be the number that consists of 61 consecutive 3's, so \(N = \underbrace{333\ldots333}_{61 \, 3's}\). Let \(M\) be the number that consists of 62 consecutive 6's, so \(M=\underbrace{6666\ldots666}_{62 \, 6's}\). What is the digit sum of \(N\times M\)?

Details and assumptions

The digit sum of a number is the sum of all its digits. For example the digit sum of 1123 is \(1 + 1 + 2 + 3 = 7\).

Let \(f\) be a polynomial with nonnegative integer coefficients. If \(f(1)=7\) and \(f(7)=7597\), what is \(f(10)\)?

You have a weighing balance, which you can place weights on both sides of. You need to measure all weights between 1 and 1000.

For example if you have weights 1 and 3, you can measure test objects of weights 1, 3 or 4. You can also measure objects of weight 2, by placing 3 on one side and 1 on the side which contain the object to be weighed.

What is the minimum number of weights that you would need to be able to measure all (integral) weights from 1 kg to 1000 kg?

Calvin went to a newly discovered planet called "Pandora" to research their advancements in the field of Mathematics. He found the following equation scrawled in the dust:

\[\large{3x^2 - 25x + 66 = 0 \quad \Longrightarrow \quad x=4 \text{ or } x=9}\]

Can you help Calvin in finding the base, which is used in the Number System on Pandora?

Note: Symbols for digits in the Pandora System and Decimal system have the same value. e.g. 6 in Pandora represents six.

Find the amount of numbers that are between \(1\) and \(100\) inclusive that when converted to binary have a digit sum of less than \(5\).

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