Given a string, find the length of the longest substring without repeating characters.
For example, the longest substring without repeating letters for "brilliant"
is "liant"
, which has a length of $5$ characters. For "aaaa"
the longest substring is "a"
, with the length of 1 character.
What is the length of the longest substring without repeating characters for the string below?
1 

Details
abcde
is nonrepeating, while abece
is not nonrepeating.In cryptography, Caesar's cipher is arguably the simplest and most widely known encryption technique.
It is a simple substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a password of 3
, A
would be replaced by D
, B
would become E
, and so on.
Implement Caesar's cipher and use it to reveal the answer to this problem by decoding the message below.
1 

Substitution ciphers are ciphers in which each alphabetical character is mapped with another character in a onetoone fashion. For example, the following string
the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
when encrypted becomes
'fzq kpgwj vxbsa rbh lpnic bdqx fzq uomy ebt'
Based on the substitution above, your task is to decipher the text below. Once the text is deciphered, the answer shall be obvious.
'qafqx rbxfy fsb oc fzq oacsqx'