Outside the Box Geometry
# Introduction

The irregular purple polygon above is the floor plan of a gallery, and an example is shown of what could be seen by a single guard in a given location.

Your job is to position some number of unmoving guards - who cannot see through walls - such that every location in the gallery is in view of one of the guards.

**What is the fewest number of guards that you could use?**

The image above shows how a single polyonimo comprised of 6 unit squares can cover the plane (that is, continue infinitely in any direction) without leaving any gaps or overlaps.

Can copies of the polyonimo below be arranged to cover the plane without leaving any gaps or overlaps?

A **rhombicuboctahedron** is a 3D solid that has **18 square faces and 8 triangular faces.** How many toothpicks were used to the model rhombicuboctahedron pictured above on the right?

**Hint**: You can solve this puzzle without counting all of the toothpicks by noting that each edge is shared by exactly two faces.

To make origami, you fold a square twice (in succession). Which of the options below is a possible crease pattern when the square is unfolded?

Later in this course, we'll see how to crease paper to form complex origami like this crane:

What is the area of the irregular orange polygon in this grid of equally spaced dots?

While you can solve this problem in many ways, we'll later explore Pick’s theorem: a clever trick for finding the area of irregular polygons drawn on pegboards.

The most important skill in geometry is creativity, not memorization. That’s why this course includes many beautiful geometry topics that are unlike anything you’d typically see in a school classroom!

All of the questions in this quiz are about a research topic that you’ll investigate in depth later in this course:

**Tessellations (the Math of Tiling the Plane)**

M.C. Escher's art isn't just beautiful - it's also extremely mathematical!

**3D Polyhedra and Euler's Facets Formula**

We'll dive into three dimensional polyhedra, including “Euler’s formula” which unites geometry and graph theory.

**The Mathematics of Folding Paper**

In the art of origami (paper folding), we'll learn to understand the crease patterns used to create origami sculptures.

**Irregular Polygons (Pegboards and Museum Guard Puzzles)**

Most real-world polygons are irregular, and we'll see problems from designing on pegboards to guarding an art museum.

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