Atom is not a plum pudding

Chemistry Level pending

J. J. Thomson suggested in \(1904\) that the atom is composed of electrons surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges, like negatively charged "raisins" surrounded by positively charged "pudding". The \(1904\) Thomson model was disproved by the \(1909\) gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, and this was interpreted by Ernest Rutherford in \(1911.\) The above right top is the expected result: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed. The above right bottom is the observed result: a small portion of the particles were deflected. Which of the following statements best explains the observed result?

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