This wiki is under construction.
118 elements (natural+man-made) are known till now. It is difficult to remember the properties of each and every element. Therefore we have to arrange these elements systematically in such a way that closely resembling elements are placed together. In this way it is easier to remember and study the properties of elements. Different scientists made successful and unsuccessful attempts to classify the elements. The modern periodic table, which is the periodic table widely used these days, was developed by Henry Moseley. The modern periodic table consists of 7 rows known as 'periods' and 18 columns known as 'groups'. Elements of the same group have the same number of valence electrons, and therefore, have similar characteristics. In this wiki we shall be discussing the characteristics of elements according to different groups.
The elements of groups can be classified into blocks. There are four blocks in the modern periodic table namely, and
Every element will have their valence shell as one of these blocks. However, it may have inner electrons in other blocks.
-block: It includes elements of group 1 and 2.
-block: Elements of group 13 to 18 are included in this block.
-block: Elements of group 3 to 17 are included in this block.
-block: Lanthanoids and Actinoids are included in this block.
General names of elements groups
Group 1 elements are called 'alkali metals'.
Group 2 elements are called 'alkaline earth metals'.
Elements in groups 3 - 12 are called 'transition metals metals'.
Group 13 elements are called 'boron family'.
Group 14 elements are called 'tetrels' or 'carbon family'.
Group 15 elements are called 'pnictogens'.
Group 16 elements are called 'chalcogens'.
Group 17 elements are called 'halogens'.
Group 18 elements are called 'nobel gasses' or 'inert gases' .
This block includes groups and
Group 1 includes alkali metals like lithium sodium potassium rubidium cesium and francium
Group 2 includes alkaline earth metals like beryllium, magnesium, calcium, barium, strontium and radium.
These metals are highly reactive.
There outer shell electronic configuration is n in group 1 and n in group 2.
The differentiating electron enters into the outermost -sub shell.
They are soft metals with low melting and boiling points.
They form basic oxides.
Generally they form ionic compounds.
These are electropositive elements.
They have low ionization potential and less electron affinity (electron gain enthalpy).
Groups 13 to 18 are included in this block.
This block includes metals, non-metals and few metalloids.
The outer shell electronic configuration according to different groups are
group 13 --- nn
group 14 --- nn
group 15 --- nn
group 16 --- nn
group 17 --- nn
group 18 --- nn
The differentiating electron enters into the -orbital of the outermost shell.
They form acidic oxides.
They generally form covalent compounds.
These elements have high ionization potential and large electron gain enthalpies.
They are electronegative.
This block includes hard, ductile, malleable and lustrous metals with high melting and boiling points.
In these elements the differentiating electrons enter in (n-1)-orbital.
The electronic configuration is (n-1), n.
They are all good conductors of heat and electricity.
They show catalytic properties.
They can form covalent as well as ionic compounds.
These elements show variable oxidation state.
Most of them form alloys.
Example Question 1