In calculus, a differentiable function is a continuous function whose derivative exists at all points on its domain. That is, the graph of a differentiable function must have a (non-vertical) tangent line at each point in its domain, be relatively "smooth" (but not necessarily mathematically smooth), and cannot contain any breaks, corners, or cusps. Differentiability lays the foundational groundwork for important theorems in calculus such as the mean value theorem.
A function is differentiable at a point if
1) is continuous at and
2) the slope of tangent at point is well defined.
At point on the interval of the function , where the function is continuous on , there is a corner if
but both limits exist.
Note: Corners are not differentiable.
At point on the interval of the function , where the function is continuous on there is a cusp if exactly one of the following is true:
- and or
Note: Cusps are not differentiable
True or False?
If a function is everywhere continuous, then it is everywhere differentiable.
Example 1: The Weierstrass function is infinitely bumpy, so that at no point can you take a derivative. But it's everywhere connected.
Example:2 is everywhere continuous but it has a corner at We cannot find the derivatives at corners because the derivative is a limit and the derivative from the left of zero is not equal to the derivative of the right of zero.
A function is smooth along if the first derivative, , is continuous along
Mean Value Theorem For Derivatives
If a function is continuous on and differentiable on , then there exists at least a point such that .
For the function , find the value(s) of satisfying the mean value theorem on the interval .
We know that is continuous on and differentiable on , so there do exist values that satisfy the mean value theorem.
So, we want to know where the slope of the tangent equals the slope of the secant given by to on , which is
By the power rule, Set and solve the equation
Those two values are the values of whose slopes of the tangents equal the slope of the secant line from to on .
Mean Value Theorem For Integrals
Given a function on the interval if is continuous on and differentiable on , then there exists a point between and such that
Note: This enables you to determine the mean value of on the interval . Think about it this way: is the average height of , which enables you just to multiply by the width of the rectangle, , to get the area under the curve. So, by dividing both sides by , we can write the average value of like this:
Given the function , find the average value of from to .
We can find the length of a smooth curve along a certain interval Remember local linearity and tangent approximation? If we zoom in on a curve, eventually it starts to look like a line. So, is it not fair to say that if we a draw a secant line through and where and are within as let's call it approaches zero, the length of the secant line let's denote as is quite close to the length of the portion of curve cut off by and Additionally, if we have a , then we must have a , such that . Then . We can then sum all of these curve lengths together with regular partitions of and have an infinite number of curve lengths. So, we write
where is the partition along and there is an infinite number of partitions along
In calculus, what do we like to do with sums? Convert them into integrals! But do we have a Riemann sum? No. So we can't make it an integral quite yet. To get a Riemann sum, we need to have an , the height of a rectangle at any given partition, and , the width of a regular partition. But, we can factor out . So we get
which can be rewritten as
We can then write as .
Why are we allowed to do this? The mean value theorem for derivatives states that there is some point on the interval on such that the slope of the secant line from to equals . Except here, we replace with , because that's some point on our regular partition and we want a Riemann sum.
So now, we have our Riemann sum
and we now have our arc length formula:
Conceptual questions to consider:
- Why does the function have to be smooth in order to use the arc length formula?
- Didn't we say that And absolute value returns a positive value always. So then, how do we find arc length when is negative?
- How can we derive a formula for the arc length of a certain interval on a parametric curve? What conditions are necessary for the formula to work?
What is the length of the curve on
At first glance, you might say that is not smooth, because doesn't exist at . However, what if we make the curve smooth? Isn't it true that we can rewrite the function as If we look at , is that smooth? In a way, yes, because now , so we're good to go, and we can integrate in terms of .
We need to know , which is by the power rule, and thus the formula is
Using the calculator to evaluate this integral, we can find that the length of the curve on that interval comes out to about .