velocity, 70 feet in 11 seconds, and fall, 60 feet? - Alsu what size of a wheel could be applied to this fall ? 12 x 22 =1.83 square feet :-area of stream. 144 113" : 70 :: 60" : 357.5 lineal feet per min.-velocity. 357.5 x 1.83=654.225 cubic feet per minute. 654.225 x 62.5=40889.0625 avoir. lbs. per minute. 40889.0625 x 60=2453343.7500 momentum at a fall of 60 [feet. 2453343.7500 =55.7 horse power. 44000 3:2 :: 55.7 : 37.13 effective power. The diameter of a wheel applicable to this fall will be 58 feet, allowing one foot below for the water to escape, and one foot above for its free admission. 58 x 3.1416=182.2128 circumference of wheel. 60x6=360 feet per minute, = velocity of wheel. 654.225 =1.8 sectional area of böckets. 360 The bucket must only be half full, therefore 1.8x2=3.6 will be the area. To give sufficient room for the water to fill the buckets, the wheel requires to be 4 feet broad. 3.6 Now, =.9, say 1 foot deep of shrouding. 4 360 =1.9 revolutions per min. the wheel will make. 182.2128 Power of water . =55.7 H. P. Effective power of do. 37.13 H. P. Dimensions ( Diameter —58 feet. Ans. of = 4 feet. EXAMPLE II. What is the power of a water wheel, 16 feet diameter, 12 feet wide, and shrouding 15 inches deep? 163.1416=50.2656 circumference of wheel. 12 x11=15 square feet, sectional area of buckets. 60 x 4=240. lineal feet per minute,= velocity. 240 x 15=3600 cubic feet water, when buckets are full; when half full, 1800 cubic feet. 1800 x 62.5=112500 avoir. Ibs. of water per minute. 112500 x 16=1800000 momentum, falling 16 feet. 1200000 3:2 :: 1800000 : =27 horse power. 44000 BUCKETS. -The number of buckets to a wheel should be as few as possible, to retain the greatest quantity of water; and their mouths only such a width as to admit the requisite quantity of water, and at the same time sufficient room to allow the air to escape. THE COMMUNICATION OF POWER.—There are no prime movers of machinery, from which power is taken in a greater variety of forms than the water wheel; and among such a number there cannot fail to be many bad applications. Suffice it here to mention one of the worst, and most generally adopted. For driving a cotton mill in this neighbourhood, there is a water wheel about 12 feet broad, and 20 feet diameter; there is a division in the middle of the buckets, upon which the segments are bolted round the wheel, and the power is taken from the vertex; from this erroneous application, a great part of the power is lost; for the weight of water upon the wheel presses against the axle in proportion to the resistance it has to overcome, and if the axle was not a very large mass of wood, with very strong iron journals, it could not stand the great strain which is upon it. The most advantageous part of the wheel, from which the power can be taken, is that point in the circle of gyration, horizontal to the centre of the axle; because, taking the power from this part, the whole weight of water in the buckets acts upon the teeth of the wheels; and the axle of the water wheel suffers no strain. The proper connection of machinery to water wheels is of the first importance, and mismanagement in this particular point is often the cause of the journals and axles giving way, besides a considerable loss of power. EXAMPLE Required the radius of the circle of gyration in a water wheel, 30 feet diameter; the weight of the arms being 12 tons, sbrouding 20 tons, and water 15 tons. } 30 feet diameter, radius=15 feet. S 20 x 15°=4500 X 2=9000 ) The opposite side of the A 12 x 152 water wheel must be -= 900 X 2=1800 3 taken. 15 =179, the square root of 79 which is 13-14 feet, the radius of the circle of gyration. PUMPS. There are two kinds of Pumps, Lifting and Forcing. The Lifting, or Common Pumps, are applied to wells, &c. where the depth does not exceed 32 feet; for beyond this depth they cannot act, because the height that water is forced up into a vacuum, by the pressure of the atmosphere, is about 34 feet. The Force Pumps are those that are used on all other occasions, and can raise water to any required height. Bramah's celebrated pump is one of this description, and shows the amazing power that can be produced by such application, and which arises from the fluid and non-compressible qualities of water. The power required to raise water any height is equal to the quantity of water discharged in a given time, and the perpendicular height. EXAMPLE. Required the power necessary to discharge 175 ale gallops of water per minute, from a pipe 252 feet high? One ale gallon of water weighs 10+ lbs. avoir. nearly, 175 x 101=1799 x 252=453348 =10.3 hörse power. 44000 The following is a very simple rule, and easily kept in remembrance. Square the diameter of the pipe in inches, and the product will be the number of lbs. of water avoirdupois contained in every yard length of the pipe. If the last figure 52 x of the product be cut off, or considered a decimal, the remaining figures will give the number of ale gallons in each yard of pipe; and if the product contains only one figure, it will be tenths of an ale gallon. The number of ale gallons multiplied by 282, gives the cubic inches in each yard of pipe; and contents of a pipe may be found by Proportion. EXAMPLE. What quantity of water will be discharged from a pipe 5 inches diameter, 252 feet perpendicular height, the water flowing at the rate of 210 feet per minute? 210 =175 ale gallons per minute. -2100 lbs. water in a pipe. 3 2100 x 210 =10 horse power required to pump that 44000 quantity of water. The following table gives the contents of a pipe one ineh in diameter, in weight and measure; which serves as a standard for pipes of other diameters, their contents being found by the following rule. Multiply the numbers in the following table against any height, by the square of the diameter of the pipe, and the product will be the number of cubic inches, avoirdupois ounces, and wine gallons of water, that the given pipe will contain. 52 x EXAMPLE. How many wine gallons of water is contained in a pipe 6 inches diameter, and 60 feet long? 2.4480 x 36=88.1280 wine gallons. In a wine gallon there are 231 cubic inches. TABLE. Feet High. ONE INCH DIAMETER. Weight in Avoir, oz. Gallons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 9.42 18.85 28.27 37.70 47.12 56.55 65.97 75.40 84.82 94.25 188.49 282.74 376.99 471.24 565.49 659.73 753.98 848.23 942.48 1884.96 5.46 10.92 16.38 21.85 27.31 32.77 38.23 43.69 49.16 54.62 109.2+ 163.86 218.47 273.09 327.71 382.33 436.95 491.57 546.19 1092.38 .0407 .0816 ,1224 ..1632 .2040 .2448 .2423 .3264 .3671 .4080 .8160 1.2240 1.6300 2.0400 2.4480 2.8560 3.2610 3.6700 4.0800 8.1600 1 The resistance arising from the friction of water flowing through pipes, &c. is directly as the velocity of the water, and inversely as the circumference of the pipe. The data given is a medium, and which is {th of the whole resistance; this is the standard generally adopted, being considered as most correct. EXAMPLE I. What is the power requisite to overcome the resistance and friction of a column of water 4 inches diameter, 100 feet high, and flowing at the velocity of 300 feet per inioute? |