# Finance Quant Interview - I

The Put option on the $40 strike is priced at$10.
The Put option on the $30 strike is priced at$8.

Is there an arbitrage opportunity? Note by Calvin Lin
6 years, 2 months ago

This discussion board is a place to discuss our Daily Challenges and the math and science related to those challenges. Explanations are more than just a solution — they should explain the steps and thinking strategies that you used to obtain the solution. Comments should further the discussion of math and science.

When posting on Brilliant:

• Use the emojis to react to an explanation, whether you're congratulating a job well done , or just really confused .
• Ask specific questions about the challenge or the steps in somebody's explanation. Well-posed questions can add a lot to the discussion, but posting "I don't understand!" doesn't help anyone.
• Try to contribute something new to the discussion, whether it is an extension, generalization or other idea related to the challenge.

MarkdownAppears as
*italics* or _italics_ italics
**bold** or __bold__ bold
- bulleted- list
• bulleted
• list
1. numbered2. list
1. numbered
2. list
Note: you must add a full line of space before and after lists for them to show up correctly
paragraph 1paragraph 2

paragraph 1

paragraph 2

[example link](https://brilliant.org)example link
> This is a quote
This is a quote
    # I indented these lines
# 4 spaces, and now they show
# up as a code block.

print "hello world"
# I indented these lines
# 4 spaces, and now they show
# up as a code block.

print "hello world"
MathAppears as
Remember to wrap math in $$ ... $$ or $ ... $ to ensure proper formatting.
2 \times 3 $2 \times 3$
2^{34} $2^{34}$
a_{i-1} $a_{i-1}$
\frac{2}{3} $\frac{2}{3}$
\sqrt{2} $\sqrt{2}$
\sum_{i=1}^3 $\sum_{i=1}^3$
\sin \theta $\sin \theta$
\boxed{123} $\boxed{123}$

Sort by:

When you pay the $10, your net gain is 40-10 = 30 which is better than 30-8=22 So, probably yes - 6 years, 2 months ago Log in to reply How is the net gain 40-10=30? Are you assuming that the stock is worth 0 at the end? What is the value of "strike - put price" equal to? How does that graph (against strikes) look like? Should it be lower for lower strikes? Staff - 6 years, 2 months ago Log in to reply Interesting question. Finally solved it. Yes. There is an arbitrage opportunity. Buy $x$ 40$ Put options and sell $y$ 30$Put options where $12y > 15x > 11 y$ - 6 years, 2 months ago Log in to reply Assume that the$40 put is still priced at $10. What would be the price of the$30 put option, where there will be no arbitrage opportunity?

Staff - 6 years, 2 months ago

Let the price at which the 30$put options is priced be $M\$. Now suppose that an arbitrage opportunity does exist. It is easily proved that the arbitrage opportunity(AO) must consist of buying 40$ (A) put options and selling 30$(B) put options. Let x (A) puts be bought and y (B) puts be sold for the AO. So we spend $10x\$ for the (A) puts and gain $My\$ for the (B) puts. Total gain =$My - 10x$ If the stock price is above 40; both puts remain unused. Therefore net earnings = $My - 10x.$ Since earning is greater than 0 in an AO, $My - 10x \geq 0 \implies My > 10x \implies (30-M)My > 10(30-M)x$. Also, since $M < 10$, we have $y > x$ If the stock price is $= P = (0,30)$; both puts are used. Earning on (A) puts = $x(40 - P)$. Loss on B puts$= y(30 - P).$ Total earning = $x(40 - P) - y(30-P) + My - 10x = 30x - (30 - M)y + (y-x)P$ Since $y - x > 0$. Total earning is minimum when $P = 0$. So minimum total earning $= 30x - (30 - M)y \geq 0 \implies 30x \geq (30-M)y \implies 30Mx \geq M(30 -M)y$. Combining both inequalities, $30Mx \geq (30 -M)y \geq 10(30-M)x$. $\implies 30Mx \geq 10(30 -M)x \implies 40M \geq 300 \implies M \geq 7.5$ So in an AO does exist, $M \geq 7.5\$. Therefore, if $M < 7.5\$, than an AO does not exist. - 6 years, 2 months ago Log in to reply To check if it works. Like you said, $x = 7 , y = 9$ works. So we buy 7 puts (A) for$70 and sell 9 puts (B) for $72. Total profit now, =$72 - 70$= 2$

If stock price is above 40; both put options remain unused. Total earning 2$If stock price is $X = (30,40)$; we use the 7 puts (A) for profit = 7(40-x) > 0; 9 (B) puts remain unused.. Total earning = 2$ + 7(40-x)> 2$If stock price is $X = (0,30)$; we use the 7 puts (A) for profit = 7(40 - X); 9 (B) puts are used giving a loss = 9(30 - X). Total earning = 7(40-X) -9(30-X) + 2$ = 2X + 12\$ > 0

- 6 years, 2 months ago

No, since P(40)-P(30)=2<40-30=10.

- 5 years, 10 months ago

You do not have a proof that there is no arbitrage opportunity. You have only checked one particular condition. There are more conditions to check. For example, an obvious one should be that P(30) < P(40). If that were not true, then we could arbitrage.

Staff - 5 years, 10 months ago

Well, there are really only 2 inequalities to check. First of all, assuming $K_{1}, $P(K_{1}) and $P(K_{2})-P(K_{1})\leq K_{2}-K_{1}$, since the premium for a put option increases more slowly compared to the strike price increase. If there are 3 options then we will have to compare its convexity.

- 5 years, 10 months ago

Great analysis! I question your assumption of "there are only 2 options given".

In particular, what is the put option on the 0 strike worth?

Staff - 5 years, 10 months ago

It will be zero.

- 5 years, 10 months ago

Precisely. Now, since I've demonstrated that the assumption of "only 2 option values" is not true, you should apply your comment of "If there are 3 options, then we will have to compare its convexity", and see what happens from there.

Staff - 5 years, 10 months ago

It forms another inequality! Although I still think that there is no arbitrage opportunity here, since Put option with 0 strike price wont exist.

- 5 years, 10 months ago