If \(n\) is a positive integer, the integers between 1 and \(n − 1\) that are coprime to \(n\) (or equivalently, the congruence classes coprime to \(n\)) form a group with multiplication modulo n as the operation; it is denoted by Zn× and is called the group of units modulo n or the group of primitive classes modulo n. As explained in the article multiplicative group of integers modulo n, this group is cyclic if and only if n is equal to 2, 4, p^k, or 2p^k where pk is a power of an odd prime number. A generator of this cyclic group is called a primitive root modulo n, or a primitive element of Zn^×.

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TopNewestWhat is the [3], [4], [5] supposed to mean? – Agnishom Chattopadhyay · 1 year ago

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\(\sqrt{x}\) – Sattik Biswas · 1 year ago

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I'll edit your comment to make a \(\sqrt{x}\). Click on edit and check that for reference. – Agnishom Chattopadhyay · 1 year ago

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– Sattik Biswas · 1 year ago

ahhhh....i am sorry again..i will remove it..since its my first note I am making too many mistakes.Log in to reply

– Agnishom Chattopadhyay · 1 year ago

What matters is that you're posting notes, which is great!Log in to reply

– Sattik Biswas · 1 year ago

thank you very much. You the inspiration manLog in to reply